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Kits and Curriculum that Teach 

Hands-on Electronics & Physics

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Experiments

Measure battery voltage using a multimeter

Now that we know about battery and voltage in detail, let’s learn how to measure voltage of a battery using a multimeter. A multimeter is a device used for measuring various electrical quantities such as voltage, current, resistance, etc. Often people confuse between multimeter readings and its default functions. Recommendation for Classroom: How to use…

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Measure resistance

In this experiment, we will learn how to measure resistance using a multimeter. Resistance is a property of material. Recommendation for Classroom: Again measuring resistance using a multimeter is a fundamental skill. For practice, ask your students to measure the resistance values of at least 5 different resistors. Interestingly enough, include a few resistors which…

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Lemon Battery

Creating a lemon battery is an interesting and fun experiment. Let’s learn how to do it. Recommendation for classroom This is a fun homework while you are teaching voltage in your classrooms. You can ask your students to build a lemon battery at home. For more fun, you can hold a contest, where the lemon…

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Continuity test of an LED

A continuity test is done on an LED to check whether it is working or not. Let’s learn how we can conduct the test. Recommendation for Classroom: You can create an interesting activity with LEDs. For this, take a few transparent (white-to-any-color) 5 mm LEDs and using the continuity test, find out what colors those…

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Glowing an LED

This will be our first experiment on a breadboard. Here, we will learn how to glow an LED and also verify the Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law. We will demonstrate how we can convert electrical energy stored in the battery to light energy and heat energy (most students forget this part!) Recommendation for Classroom: Most physics textbooks…

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Measuring current in a circuit using a multimeter

This experiment will help us learn how to measure current in a circuit using a multimeter. An ammeter is a device that measures current and is always connected in series with the circuit. It is denoted by a symbol “A”. A multimeter can be used as an ammeter. Recommendation for Classroom: Use different value resistors…

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Glowing an LED using a potentiometer

In this experiment, we will use a potentiometer to vary the intensity of an LED. This is a fun project. Recommendation for Classroom: Ask your students to make a list of at least 10 devices where have they seen the potentiometer in action in their daily lives? For a more fun-filled classroom, since your students…

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Varying intensity of light using a preset

Now it’s time to get working with the smaller version of potentiometer, called the preset. In this experiment, we will use a preset as a variable resistor to control the intensity of an LED. It is portable and handy to use. The best part is that we can simply use a screw driver to vary…

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Alternate glowing of LEDs using a preset

Let’s try out this fun experiment using a present to control the intensity of two LEDs simultaneously. Question for Classroom: In this experiment, you are varying resistance on two sides, increasing it on one-side and simultaneously decreasing it on the other side. Ask your students to brainstorm on potential applications of this experiment. Where could…

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Glowing an LED using an LDR

In this experiment, we will introduce you to a resistor that changes its resistance with light. Moreover, you will then control the intensity with which an LED glows using an LDR (light dependent resistor). We often call LDR as a light sensor. This project will demonstrate how the resistance of LDR changes with change in…

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Beep a buzzer

This is a simple, yet fun experiment to do in your classrooms. Imagine 20 or 30 buzzers beeping at at time! Certainly, you are going to attract a lot of attention on your campus. So far you have learned to convert electrical energy to light energy. In this project, we will convert electric potential energy…

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Series combination-I

LEDs form an integral part of our festival decorations. We all love the aura that it creates and how it lights up any corner. In this video, we will delve into the basics of series combination and then we will learn to combine resistors and LEDs in series. Last but not the least, we will…

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Parallel combination: Part 1

In this experiment, we will further develop an understanding of parallel combination in true sense. Is it just the the devices that are connected in parallel or does it mean something more? When you have multiple devices that work on different operating currents, or to put it simply, if the devices withdraw different currents from…

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Parallel combination of LEDs – II

This is quite an interesting project because here we will learn how to connect multiple LED and resistor pairs on breadboard. This project will also lay the foundation of a very important physics law used in circuit analysis, popularly known as Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL). We will verify KCL in this parallel combination of LEDs-II….

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Continuity test of a two-way switch

How do we know which of the two terminals is connected when the switch is flipped upwards or downwards? This is what exactly a continuity test of a two-way switch will help us identify. Let’s try out this fun experiment. Since two-way switch has one pole and two throws, it is also known as single…

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Controlling LEDs using an SPDT switch

Have you ever wondered how to do internal wiring in a switch to control any light? Well, this project would unravel that. We will use an SPDT or two-way switch to control the switching action of an LED and then two LEDs. In the end, you will be able to control the flow of electricity…

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Staircase lighting

We often see this fun experiment in our daily lives. There is a bulb in the staircase. The switching action of the bulb can be controlled by either of the two switches, one positioned upstairs and the other downstairs. Let’s try it out.     Let’s follow the simple step-by-step guide below and try out…

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Charging and discharging a capacitor

Allow us to give you a demo of how a photo flash works in a camera. We cannot think of a more simplest project to demonstrate the working of a capacitor. Recommendation for Classroom: Use different value capacitors for this project and enjoy the flash of an LED! Question for Classroom: You can further ask…

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Charging the capacitor with a resistor

We saw in the previous experiment that capacitor gets charged instantly when a battery is connected across its terminals. Is there a way to control the speed at which the capacitor gets charged? But even if we are able to control the rate of charging, where can it be used in real life? What if…

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Creating spark using a capacitor

Recommendation for Classroom: This is a pure fun project. The important take away is that as kids, we always wanted to connect the red wire to the black wire to see what would be the end effect? Intuitively, we all knew that it would be something dangerous, but we still wanted to do it. Shorting…

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Connecting capacitors in series and parallel

When capacitors are connected in series, the charge stored by each capacitor is the same and when the capacitors are connected in parallel, the charge stored by each capacitor will be different, but the voltage across each capacitor is the same. Question for Classroom: When capacitors are connected in series, why is the magnitude of…

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Capacitor charging and discharging curves

This is probably one of the most important curves related to capacitors that we strongly encourage your students to understand and memorize. Recommendation for Classroom: Using the readings recorded in the charging and discharging experiments, plot this curve on a graph paper. If you are teaching AP Physics, IB, IGCSE or IIT-JEE classes, then you…

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How to use a wire cutter and stripper

Stripping wires with a wire cutter may seem simple, but if you are using it for the first time, it can be tricky. Most people end up cutting up their wires instead of stripping them. This video will guide us on how to use a wire cutter and stripper. Recommendation for Classroom: Ask you students…

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Continuity test of relay

We have already learned to test switches using a multimeter. A relay is a switch too. So it is no different than other switches except that there are two extra supply terminals (one positive and the other negative). In this experiment, we will try to identify the different terminals of a relay and label them…

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Relay as an oscillator

This is one of the most interesting projects with a relay. We know that the relay gets activated when we provide supply to its terminals. In this project, we will design a circuit in which we can control the number of times the relay gets activated and deactivated in a second. We can achieve this…

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Low resistance path using a diode

Have you ever wondered how to force current to follow a certain path? We design things in a certain way so that they function in a certain way. This project will help you get this perspective. Recommendation for Classroom: Try the following modifications in this circuit and trace the path of current. Use a multimeter…

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Protecting a circuit using a diode

Did you know that a diode can help us save circuitry and avoid malfunctioning due to wrong battery connections? We will understand this with an example. Suppose we want to operate a clock. We know that a motor rotates in the clockwise direction, due to which the hands of the clock run clockwise. Now what…

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OR gate using diodes

In this module, we will build a 2-input OR Gate using diodes and resistors and then realize its truth table. Recommendation for Classroom: Logic gates is an interesting topic for students. We recommend that you create a logic gates contest in your classroom. By hosting this contest, you will also be able to spot the…

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NAND gate using diodes

A 2-input NAND gate has two inputs and one output. It inverts the output of an AND gate. We can build this gate by directing the output of an AND gate to a NOT gate. Hope you remember that this is the school, where in order to pass, you must fail in one of the…

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AND gate using diodes

In this module, we will build a 2-input AND Gate using diodes and resistors and then realize its truth table.   Note: If you would like to further go in depth of how each logic gate works, you can also go for our Logic Gates Packs. We have done extensive research and hours of testing…

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NOR gate using diodes

In this module, we will build a 2-input NOR Gate using diodes and resistors and then realize its truth table. A NOR gate inverts the output of an OR gate. We can build this gate by directing output of an OR gate into a NOT gate. Sounds too technical? We can remember this gate and…

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Zener Diode Part 1

In this experiment, we will try to glow an LED using a zener diode and then run a series of modifications to test how a zener diode works. As they say, you only learn by doing it. Recommendation for Classroom: To encourage self-discovery amongst students, ask them to glow an LED using a zener diode….

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Zener diode as a voltage regulator

One of the most important applications of a zener diode is voltage regulation. Consider this! You have a device connected to a fluctuating voltage source. And you don’t want the voltage to fluctuate to a level that the voltage across the device shoots above a threshold limit which we call voltage rating and consequently, the…

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DC motor as generator

We know that when we provide electricity to a motor, it creates motion. Is the converse possible? On providing motion, will the motor generate electricity? This simple project is a feast for all science teachers looking to start a fun-filled class with motors. Moreover, you can easily demonstrate the principle of Electromagnetic Induction (EMI) using…

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Surgery of DC motor

The title explains it all. So let’s do it. Recommendation for Classroom: Give motors to students. Ask them to open them up and label the parts in the worksheet. There is no better way! To download the worksheet, click here.  …

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Controlling speed of DC motor – I

This question is certainly going to dazzle you. When we rotate the knob, the speed of the fan changes. So, what do you think changes? Is it the voltage across the fan motor or the current passing through it. Now, you might be thinking why is it important? If you are teaching Robotics in your…

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Measuring the gain of a transistor

Do you know that a transistor can be used for amplification? In fact, there is a term called amplification factor or beta of a transistor. You will also find “beta” mentioned in the data sheets. Refer to the video to learn more. Question for Classroom: What does a BJT type of transistor amplify? Is it…

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Transistor as an amplifier and switch

The title says it all. In this project, we will find out the conditions under which a transistor can either act as an amplifier or a switch. Recommendation for Classroom: Using a transistor as a switch is no different than using a manual switch. Ask your students to control an LED by using a transistor….

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Touch-activated switch

In this fun project, we will pass current through our body and glow an LED. Don’t be scared! You will see how our body resistance will act as an input resistor and turn the transistor ON. Recommendation for Classroom: This is a fun-filled science activity that will make your classroom more collaborative and electric. After…

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Automatic night lamp

This is one of the most exciting projects of the lot. Imagine you switch off the lights of your classroom and the LED turns ON automatically. Have you ever imagined how the street lights are turned on in the evening and they automatically go off in the morning? Is there someone who comes early in…

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Transistor as blinker (LED flasher)

This is the rarest of the projects you will ever find since we dug out a few research papers in physics and thought what interesting we could build. Have you ever seen blinking (flashing) lights on highways, mines, tunnels etc.? Well, you can actually make an LED flasher circuit on your own in less than…

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Alternate blinking of LEDs

In this project, we will use a transistor as a flip-flop to blink the LEDs alternately. The basic idea of a flip-flop is to design a system which has two states. Each state can store some information and perform a function. In this circuit, the transistor has between two states: the cut-off state and the…

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Transistor as an inverter (NOT gate)

Do you know that a transistor can also act as an inverter or a NOT gate? We already know that a NOT gate inverts the input provided to it that is, inverts 1 to 0 and 0 to 1. Do you remember that we keep stressing on the fact that transistor acts as an input-output…

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H-Bridge

H-bridge is a circuit which is used in robotics to drive motors. It is called a motor driving circuit. We can control the direction of rotation of the motor by controlling the polarity of applied voltage across its terminals. There are two kinds of polarity: positive and negative. Positive polarity here means providing VCC to…

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Voltage divider using a preset

A voltage divider is used to provide variable voltage to a circuit. We can think of a voltage divider as a variable battery, which can provide voltage varying from zero to the rated value (maximum). This is one of the most important applications of a preset while designing new circuits. In short, you will be…

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Sequential glowing of LEDs

In the following step-by-step guide, let’s try out the sequential glowing of LEDs experiment:  …

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Charging & discharging the capacitor with a resistor – Case 2

So, we have already seen how a capacitor charges or discharges. Now, let us increase the resistance in this case by 30 times, which means we will now use a 10 kilo ohm resistor in the circuit along with a 100 μF capacitor. Since time constant is the multiplication of resistance and capacitance, if you…

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Charging & discharging the capacitor with a resistor-Case 3

Now in case 3, we will increase the resistance by 3 times and the capacitance used in the original circuit by 10 times. This means we will use a 1 kΩ (1 kilo ohm) resistor and a 1000 μF capacitor. Consequently, the time constant of this circuit is 30 times the time constant of the…

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AND Gate Using Transistors

Do you know how the garden floodlights work? For this, one needs to know the concept of an AND gate. The floodlights contain a heat sensor as well as a light sensor. The floodlights turn ON only when both the sensors are triggered and provide a high input voltage (1) to the AND Gate. A…

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Automatic night lamp inverted

Hope you had great fun in the previous project. Now can we invert the effect of automatic night lamp? Can we design a circuit in which the LED turns ON in the light and turns OFF in the dark? Certainly, yes! Let us modify the original night lamp circuit. If you notice carefully in the…

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NOR gate using transistors

Do you know what controls a mixing machine that blends a variety of ingredients? The concept of a 2-input NOR gate will help you understand this; it has two inputs (A and B) and only one output (Q). Each ingredient is stored in the hopper. Inside the hopper a proximity switch is mounted which acts…

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OR gate using transistors

You have already built an OR gate before using diodes. Now, let us use transistors to build an OR Gate. What happens in an industrial power plant when one or more parameters exceed the safe value? In this case, the OR gate comes to the aid and can be used to detect any parameter value…

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