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You have already built an OR gate before using diodes. Now, let us use transistors to build an OR Gate. What happens in an industrial power plant when one or more parameters exceed the safe value? In this case, the OR gate comes to the aid and can be used to detect any parameter value…

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Do you know what controls a mixing machine that blends a variety of ingredients? The concept of a 2-input NOR gate will help you understand this; it has two inputs (A and B) and only one output (Q). Each ingredient is stored in the hopper. Inside the hopper a proximity switch is mounted which acts…

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Hope you had great fun in the previous project. Now can we invert the effect of automatic night lamp? Can we design a circuit in which the LED turns ON in the light and turns OFF in the dark? Certainly, yes! Let us modify the original night lamp circuit. If you notice carefully in the…

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Do you know how the garden floodlights work? For this, one needs to know the concept of an AND gate. The floodlights contain a heat sensor as well as a light sensor. The floodlights turn ON only when both the sensors are triggered and provide a high input voltage (1) to the AND Gate. A…

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Now in case 3, we will increase the resistance by 3 times and the capacitance used in the original circuit by 10 times. This means we will use a 1 kΩ (1 kilo ohm) resistor and a 1000 μF capacitor. Consequently, the time constant of this circuit is 30 times the time constant of the…

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So, we have already seen how a capacitor charges or discharges. Now, let us increase the resistance in this case by 30 times, which means we will now use a 10 kilo ohm resistor in the circuit along with a 100 μF capacitor. Since time constant is the multiplication of resistance and capacitance, if you…

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In the following step-by-step guide, let’s try out the sequential glowing of LEDs experiment:  …

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A voltage divider is used to provide variable voltage to a circuit. We can think of a voltage divider as a variable battery, which can provide voltage varying from zero to the rated value (maximum). This is one of the most important applications of a preset while designing new circuits. In short, you will be…

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H-bridge is a circuit which is used in robotics to drive motors. It is called a motor driving circuit. We can control the direction of rotation of the motor by controlling the polarity of applied voltage across its terminals. There are two kinds of polarity: positive and negative. Positive polarity here means providing VCC to…

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Do you know that a transistor can also act as an inverter or a NOT gate? We already know that a NOT gate inverts the input provided to it that is, inverts 1 to 0 and 0 to 1. Do you remember that we keep stressing on the fact that transistor acts as an input-output…

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